Works Cited

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing emerging infectious diseases: a strategy for the 21st century: overview of the updated CDC plan. MMWR. 1998;47(RR15):1-14.

2. Giblin TB, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, Harris PL, et al. Clinicians' perceptions of the problem of antimicrobial resistance in health care facilities. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(15):1662-1668.

3. Rice LB. Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):183-187.

4. Chouake J, Krausz A, Adler BL, Cohen HW, Nosanchuk JD, Friedman A. Management of cutaneous abscesses by dermatologists.J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(2):611-616.

5. Arroll B, Kenealy T, Kerse N. Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections? A systematic review.Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53(496):871-877.

6. Arnold SR, Straus SE. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in ambulatory care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;19(4):CD003539.

7. Lin MY, Hayden MK. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: recognition and prevention in intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(8 suppl):S335-S344.

8. Kerwat K, Kerwat M, Graf J, Wulf H. Resistance to antibiotics and multiresistant pathogens. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2010;45(4):242-243.

9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diseases and Organisms in Healthcare Settings. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/organisms.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

10. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings, 2006. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/mdro/mdro_0.html. Last accessed February 20, 2017.

11. World Health Organization. WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Available at http://www.who.int/drugresistance/WHO_Global_Strategy.htm/en/. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

12. McManus MC. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1997;54(12):1420-1433.

13. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA (eds). Medical Microbiology. 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015.

14. Weinstein RA. Controlling antimicrobial resistance in hospitals: infection control and use of antibiotics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):188-192.

15. Turnidge J, Paterson DL. Setting and revising antibacterial susceptibility breakpoints. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(3):391-408.

16. Kaye KS, Fraimow HS, Abrutyn E. Pathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, and clinical management. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2000;14(2):293-319.

17. Stokowski LA. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Primer. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/729196. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

18. Neu HC. Overview of mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989;12(4 suppl 1):S109-S116.

19. Normark BH, Normark S. Evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance. J Intern Med. 2002;252(2):91-106.

20. Shlaes DM, Gerding DN, John JF Jr, et al. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance. Guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18(4):275-291.

21. Neff M. Practice guidelines: ATS, CDC, and IDSA update recommendations on the treatment of tuberculosis. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(9):1854, 1857-1858, 1861-1862.

22. Goossens H. Antibiotic Resistance: Highlights of the 16th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Available at http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/530824. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

23. Nahid P, Dorman SE, Alipanah N, et al. Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines: treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(7):e147-e195.

24. Tenover FC, Hughes JM. The challenges of emerging infectious diseases: development and spread of multiply-resistant bacterial pathogens. JAMA. 1996;275(4):300-304.

25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NARMS: Combating Antibiotic Resistance with Surveillance. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/narms/faq.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

26. Evans G. The day-care connection to drug resistance: parental pressure leads to antibiotic pressure. Healthcare Infect Prev. 2000:1-2.

27. Metlay JP, Powers JH, Dudley MN, Christiansen K, Finch RG. Antimicrobial drug resistance, regulation, and research. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(2):183-190.

28. Pu S, Han F, Ge B. Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Louisiana retail meats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75(1):265-267.

29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines: Gonococcal Infections. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/gonorrhea.htm. Last accessed February 20, 2017.

30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Facility Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE): November 2015 Update CRE Toolkit. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/cre/CRE-guidance-508.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

31. Goldmann DA, Weinstein RA, Wenzel RP, et al. Strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in hospitals: a challenge to hospital leadership. JAMA. 1996;275(3):234-240.

32. Chen YY, Wang FD, Liu CY, Chou P. Incidence rate and variable cost of nosocomial infections in different types of intensive care units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30(1):39-46.

33. Mulvey MR, Grant JM, Plewes K, Roscoe D, Boyd DA. New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(1).

34. Rawat D, Nair D. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in gram negative bacteria. J Glob Infect Dis. 2010;2(3):263-274.

35. Diekema DJ, Pfaller MA, Schmitz FJ, et al. Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1997–1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(suppl 2):S114-S132.

36. Montgomery CP, Boyle-Vavra S, Adem PV, et al. Comparison of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pulsotypes USA300 and USA400 in a rat model of pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2008;198(4):561-570.

37. McCaskill ML, Mason EO Jr, Kaplan SL, Hammerman W, Lamberth LB, Hulten KG. Increase of the USA300 clone among community-acquired methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(12):1122-1127.

38. Gorwitz RJ, Jernigan DB, Powers JH, Jernigan JA, and participants in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Convened Experts' Meeting on Management of MRSA in the Community. Strategies for Clinical Management of MRSA in the Community: Summary of an Experts' Meeting Convened by the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2006.

39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MRSA Tracking. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/tracking. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

40. Gorwitz RJ, Kruszon-Moran D, McAllister SK, et al. Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001–2004. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(9):1226-1234.

41. Hageman JC, Uyeki TM, Francis JS, et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003–2004 influenza season. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:894-899.

42. McCaig LF, McDonald LC, Mandal S. Jernigan DB. Staphylococcus aureus-associated skin and soft tissue infections in ambulatory care. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(11).

43. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MRSA Information for Inpatient Clinicians and Administrators. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/healthcare/clinicians/index.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

44. Bratu S, Eramo A, Kopec R, et al. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospital nursery and maternity units. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(6):808-813.

45. Healy CM, Hulten KG, Palazzi DL, Campbell JR, Baker CJ. Emergence of new strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(10):1460-1466.

46. Saiman L, O'Keefe M, Graham PL 3rd, et al. Hospital transmission of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among postpartum women. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(10):1313-1319.

47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection among healthy newborns—Chicago and Los Angeles County, 2004. MMWR. 2006;55(12):329-332.

48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia associated with influenza: Louisiana and Georgia, December 2006–January 2007. MMWR. 2007;56(14):325-329.

49. Dean N. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired and health care-associated pneumonia: incidence, diagnosis, and treatment options. Hosp Pract (Minneap). 2010;38(1):7-15.

50. National Center for Infectious Diseases. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, Data Summary from January 1992 through June 2004, Issued October 2004. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/dataStat/NNIS_2004.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

51. Burton DC, Edwards JR, Horan TC, Jernigan JA, Fridkin SK. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus central line-associated bloodstream infections in U.S. intensive care units, 1997–2007. JAMA. 2009;301(7):727-736.

52. Elixhauser A, Steiner C. Infections with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in U.S. Hospitals, 1993–Available at https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb35.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

53. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings, 2006. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/MDRO/MDROGuideline2006.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

55. Selvey LA, Whitby M, Johnson B. Nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: is it any worse than nosocomial methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2000;21(10):645-648.

56. Shurland S, Zhan M, Bradham DD, Roghmann MC. Comparison of mortality risk associated with bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28(3):273-279.

57. Wang FD, Chen YY, Chen TL, Liu CY. Risk factors and mortality in patients with nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(2):118-122.

58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Pacific Islanders—Hawaii, 2001–2003. MMWR. 2004;53(33):767-770.

59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in correctional facilities—Georgia, California, and Texas, 2001–2003. MMWR. 2003;52(41):992-996.

60. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections among competitive sports participants—Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles County, 2000–2003. MMWR. 2003;52(33):793-795.

61. Zinderman CE, Conner B, Malakooti MA, LaMar JE, Armstrong A, Bohnker BK. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among military recruits. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(5):941-944.

62. Adcock PM, Pastor P, Medley F, Patterson JE, Murphy TV. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two child care centers.J Infect Dis. 1998;178(2):577-580.

63. Lee NE, Taylor MM, Bancroft E, et al. Risk factors for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(10):1529-1534.

64. Groom AV, Wolsey DH, Naimi TS, et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a rural American Indian community. JAMA. 2001;286(10):1201-1205.

65. Baggett HC, Hennessy TW, Rudolph K, et al. Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with antibiotic use and the cytotoxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin during a furunculosis outbreak in rural Alaska. J Infect Dis. 2004;189(9):1565-1573.

66. D'Agata EM, Webb GF, Pressley J. Rapid emergency of co-colonization with community-acquired and hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the hospital setting. Math Model Nat Phenom. 2010;5(3):76-73.

67. Popovich KJ, Weinstein RA, Hota B. Are community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains replacing traditional nosocomial MRSA strains? Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(6):787-794.

68. McCannon CJ, Hackbarth AD, Griffin FA. Miles to go: an introduction to the 5 Million Lives campaign. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Safe. 2007;33(8):477-484.

69. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Action Plan to Prevent Health Care-Associated Infections: Road Map to Elimination. Available at https://health.gov/hcq/prevent-hai-action-plan.asp. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

70. Reboli AC, John JF Jr, Platt CG, Cantey JR. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak at a Veterans' Affairs Medical Center: importance of carriage of the organism by hospital personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1990;11(6):291-296.

71. Zafar AB, Butler RC, Reese DJ, Gaydos LA, Mennonna PA. Use of 0.3% triclosan (Bacti-Stat) to eradicate an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal nursery. Am J Infect Control. 1995;23(3):200-208.

72. Duckro AN, Blom DW, Lyle EA, Weinstein RA, Hayden MK. Transfer of vancomycin-resistant enterococci via health care worker hands. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(3):302-307.

73. Boyce JM, Pittet D, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR. 2002;51(RR16):1-45.

74. Burke JP. Infection control—a problem for patient safety. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(7):651-656.

75. The Leapfrog Group. Eighty-Seven Percent of U.S. Hospitals Do Not Take Recommended Steps to Prevent Avoidable Infections. Available at http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/news/2007/09/leapfrog-group-survey-reveals-87-percent-of-u-s-h.aspx. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

76. Clark AP, Houston S. Nosocomial infections: an issue of patient safety: part 2. Clin Nurse Spec. 2004;18(2):62-64.

77. Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet. 2000;356(9238):1307-1312.

78. Larson EL, Quiros D, Lin SX. Dissemination of the CDC's hand hygiene guideline and impact on infection rates. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35(10):666-675.

79. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/pdf/action-plan-2012.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

80. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/isolation/Isolation2007.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

81. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Clears First Quick Test for Drug-Resistant Staph Infections. Available at https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm161552.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

82. Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove SE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(1):1-38.

83. Saravolatz LD1, Pawlak J, Johnson LB. In vitro susceptibilities and molecular analysis of vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(4):582-586.

84. Morales G, Picazo JJ, Baos E, et al. Resistance to linezolid is mediated by the cfr gene in the first report of an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(6):821-825.

85. Murray BE. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:710-721.

86. McManus AT, Goodwin CW, Pruitt BA Jr. Observations on the risk of resistance with the extended use of vancomycin. Arch Surg. 1998;133(11):1207-1211.

87. Furuno JP, McGregor JC, Harris AD, et al. Identifying groups at high risk for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(5):580-585.

88. Squires RA, Postier RG. Tigecycline for the treatment of infections due to resistant gram-positive organisms. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2006;15(2):155-162.

89. Linden PK. Treatment options for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Drugs. 2002;62(3):425-441.

90. Eliopoulos GM. Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid: evidence and opinion. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(4):473-481.

91. Raad I, Hachem R, Hanna H, et al. Prospective, randomized study comparing quinupristin-dalfopristin with linezolid in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53(4):646-649.

92. Fang FC, McClelland M, Guiney DG, et al. Value of molecular epidemiologic analysis in a nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak. JAMA. 1993;270(11):1323-1328.

93. Trindade PA, McCulloch JA, Oliveira GA, Mamizuka EM. Molecular techniques for MRSA typing: current issues and perspectives. Braz J Infect Dis. 2003;7(1):32-43.

94. Ross TL, Merz WG, Farkosh M, Carroll KC. Comparison of an automated repetitive sequence-based PCR microbial typing system to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for analysis of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(11):5642-5647.

95. Levin TP, Byungse S, Axelrod P, Truant AL, Fekete T. Potential clindamycin resistance in clindamycin-susceptible, erythromycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: report of a clinical failure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49(3):1222.

96. Kader AA, Kumar A, Krishna A. Induction of clindamycin resistance in erythromycin-resistant, clindamycin susceptible and methicillin-resistant clinical staphylococcal isolates. Saudi Med J. 2005;26(12):1914-1917.

97. Gherardi G, De Florio L, Lorino G, Fico L, Dicuonzo G. Macrolide resistance genotypes and phenotypes among erythromycin-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylocci, Italy. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;55(1):62-67.

98. Schmitz FJ, Sadurski R, Kray A, et al. Prevalence of macrolide-resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium isolates from 24 European university hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000;45(6):891-894.

99. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal Disease: Fast Facts. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/about/facts.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

100. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ABCs Report: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2012. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/abcs/reports-findings/survreports/spneu12.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

101. Gleckman RA. Selected Issues in Antibiotic Resistance. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/472309. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

102. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Pneumococcal Disease. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt11-pneumo.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

103. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017 National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System Event Code List. Available at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/case-notification/related-documentation.html#event-code-lists. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

104. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in Tuberculosis, 2015. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

105. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal Disease: Drug Resistance. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/drug-resistance.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

106. McCracken GH Jr. Emergence of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: a problem in pediatrics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995;14(5):424-428.

107. American Thoracic Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171(4):388-416.

108. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Solutions Initiative. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/solutions-initiative. Last accessed February 20, 2017.

109. Gold HS. Antimicrobial-drug resistance. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1445-1453.

110. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement; 2006.

111. Nuorti JP, Whitney CG. Prevention of pneumococcal disease among infants and children-use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. MMWR. 2010;59(RR11):1-18.

112. Geiter L (ed). Ending Neglect: The Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.

113. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Decrease in reported tuberculosis cases—United States, 2009. MMWR. 2010;59(10):289-294.

114. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Guide for Primary Health Care Providers. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/ltbi/pdf/targetedltbi.pdf. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

115. Blumberg HM, Leonard MK Jr, Jasmer RM. Update on the treatment of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. JAMA. 2005;293(22):2776-2784.

116. Epstein L. Tuberculosis among health care workers. Am J Nurs. 2007;107:21.

117. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic TB Facts. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

118. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR. 2005;54(RR17):1-147.

119. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fact Sheet: Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/drtb/mdrtb.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

120. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised definition of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. MMWR. 2006;55(43):1176.

121. Granich RM, Oh P, Lewis B, Porco TC, Flood J. Multidrug resistance among persons with tuberculosis in California, 1994–2003. JAMA. 2005;293(22):2732-2739.

122. Telenti A, Iseman M. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: what do we do now? Drugs. 2000;59(2):171-179.

123. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities, 1994. MMWR. 1994;43(RR13):1-132.

124. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. VISA/VRSA in Healthcare Settings. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/visa_vrsa/visa_vrsa.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

125. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. VRE in Healthcare Settings. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/vre/vre.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

126. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis: Treatment. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/default.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

127. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gonorrhea: CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed Version). Available at https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea-detailed.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

128. Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(RR12):1-110.

129. Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, Brooks JT, Pau A, Masur H, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR. 2009;58(RR4):1-207.

130. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Press Release: FDA Clears First Test to Quickly Diagnose and Distinguish MRSA and MSSA. Available at https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm254512.htm. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

131. Bala M, Sood S. Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Glob Infect Dis. 2010;2(3):284-290.

132. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonorrhea). Available at https://www.niaid.nih.gov/research/multidrug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

133. Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Maeda S. Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Urol. 2010;184(3):851-858.

134. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Screening. Available at https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-screening. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

135. Mayo Clinic. Gonorrhea. Available at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gonorrhea/home/ovc-20258677. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

136. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Discovery of First mcr-1 Gene in E. coli Bacteria Found in a Human in United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/s0531-mcr-1.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

137. Nordmann P, Cuzon G, Naas T. The real threat of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9(4):228-236.

138. Hirsch EB, Tam VH. Detection and treatment options for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs): an emerging cause of multi-drug resistant infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(6):1119-1125.

139. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance: Biggest Threats. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/biggest_threats.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

140. Dubberke ER, Gerding DN, Classen D, Arias KM. Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(suppl 1):S81-S92.

141. Cuzon G, Naas T, Nordmann P. KPC carbapenemases: what is at stake in clinical microbiology? Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58(1):39-45.

142. Tenover FC, Kalsi RK, Williams PP, et al. Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae not detected by automated susceptibility testing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(8):1209-1213.

143. Chen LF. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase: Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Continues To Go Global. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587949. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

144. Arnold RS, Thom KA, Sharma S, Phillips M, Kristie Johnson J, Morgan DJ. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria. South Med J. 2011;104(1):40-45.

145. Bassetti M, Righi E, Esposito S, Petrosillo N, Nicolini L. Drug treatment for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanni infections. Future Microbiol. 2008;3(6):649-660.

146. Garnacho-Montero J, Amaya-Villar R. Multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: epidemiology and management. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23(4):332-339.

147. Gootz TD, Mara A. Acinetobacter baumannii: an emerging multidrug-resistant threat. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6(3):309-325.

148. Falagas ME, Bliziotis IA, Siempos II. Attributable mortality of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in critically ill patients: a systematic review of matched cohort and case-control studies. Crit Care. 2006;10(2):R48.

149. Mahgoub S, Ahmed J, Glatt AE. Completely resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:477-479.

150. Baran G, Erbay A, Bodur H, et al. Risk factors for nosocomial imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12(1):16-21.

151. Abbo A, Carmeli Y, Navon-Venezia S, Siegman-Igra Y, Schwaber MJ. Impact of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii on clinical outcomes. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;26:793-800.

152. Jeong SH, Bae IK, Park KO, et al. Outbreaks of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing carbapenemases in Korea. J Microbiol. 2006;44(4):423-431.

153. Nemec A, Krízová L, Maixnerová M, et al. Emergence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in the Czech Republic is associated with the spread of multidrug-resistant isolates of European clone II. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(3):484-489.

154. Chim H, Tan BH, Song C. Five-year review of infections in a burn intensive care unit: high incidence of Acinetobacter baumannii in a tropical climate. Burns. 2007;33(8):1008-1014.

155. Wang H, Guo P, Sun H, et al. Molecular epidemiology of clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacterspp. from Chinese hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(11):4022-4028.

156. Cunha BA. Acinetobacter. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236891-overview. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

157. Todar K. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Available at http://textbookofbacteriology.net/index.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

158. Obritsch MD, Fish DN, MacLaren R, Jung R. Nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: epidemiology and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy. 2005;25(10):1353-1364.

159. Sehulster L, Chinn RYW. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. MMWR. 2003;52(RR10):1-42.

160. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic Discovery Stagnates... A Public Health Crisis Brews. Alexandria, VA: Infectious Diseases Society of America; 2004.

161. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR, the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20(4):247-264.

162. Fuller C, Savage J, Besser S, et al. "The dirty hand in the latex glove:" a study of hand hygiene compliance when gloves are worn. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(12):1194-1199.

163. Muto CA, Jernigan JA, Ostrowsky BE, et al. SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(5):362-386.

164. Calfee DP, Salgado CD, Classen D, et al. Strategies to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute care hospitals. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(suppl 1):S62-S80.

165. Lowy FD. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: where is it coming from and where is it going? JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(21):1978-1979.

166. Yigit H, Queenan AM, Anderson GJ, et al. Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45(4):1151-1161.

167. Sievert DM, Ricks P, Edwards JR, et al. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011–2014. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37(11):1288-1301.

168. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/pseudomonas.html. Last accessed February 23, 2017.

169. McAdam PR, Templeton KE, Edwards GF, et al. Molecular tracing of the emergence, adaptation, and transmission of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(23):9107-9112.

170. Barnes SL, Harris AD, Golden BL, Wasil EA, Furuno JP. Contribution of interfacility patient movement to overall methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence levels. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32(11):1073-1078.

171. Reves RR, Nolan CM. Tuberculosis elimination in the United States: an achievable goal or an illusion? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186(3):i-iii.

172. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among adults aged >/= 65 years: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2014;63(37):822-825.

173. Nordmann P, Naas T, Poirel L. Global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(10):1791-1798.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Chow AW, Benninger MS, Brook I, et al. IDSA clinical practice guideline for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54(8):e72-e112. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/36681. Last accessed February 27, 2017.

2. Chaudhuri A, Martinez-Martin P, Kennedy PG, et al. EFNS guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis: report of an EFNS Task Force on acute bacterial meningitis in older children and adults. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15(7):649-659. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/13564. Last accessed February 27, 2017.

3. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tuberculosis. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2016. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/49964. Last accessed February 27, 2017.



Privacy Policy
Copyright © 2017 CE Resource, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.