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160. Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A, et al. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). JAMA. 2003;289(22):2983-2991.

161. Inoue S, Kawaguchi M, Sasaoka N, Hirai K, Furuya H. Effects of neuromuscular block on systemic and cerebral hemodynamics and bispectral index during moderate or deep sedation in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(3):391-397.

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164. Barr J, Fraser GL, Puntillo K, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(1):263-306.

165. Maddox TG. Adverse reactions to contrast material: recognition, prevention, and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66(7):1229-1235.

166. Pannu HK, Fishman EK. Complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: spectrum of abnormalities demonstrated with CT. Radiographics. 2001;21(6):1441-1453.

167. North Dakota Board of Nursing. Practice Statements: Role of Registered Nurse (RN) in the Management of Patients Receiving Moderate Sedation/Analgesia for Therapeutic, Diagnostic, or Surgical Procedures. Available at https://www.ndbon.org/RegulationsPractice/PracticeStatements/Mgmt-ModerateSedation.asp. Last accessed June 13, 2017.

168. American Association of Moderate Sedation Nurses. Certified Sedation Registered Nurse (CSRN) Scope of Practice. Available at https://aamsn.org/resources/pdfs/sedation-related-pdfs/registered-nurse-csrn-scope-of-practice. Last accessed June 13, 2017.

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Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Apfelbaum JL, Task Force on Postanesthetic Care. Practice guidelines for postanesthetic care: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Postanesthetic Care. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(2):291-307. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/43896. Last accessed June 27, 2014.

2. Godwin SA, Burton JH, Gerardo CJ, et al. Clinical policy: procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;63(2):247-258. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/47772. Last accessed June 22, 2017.

3. ASGE Standards of Practice Committee, Early DS, Acosta RD, et al. Modifications in endoscopic practice for the elderly. Gastrointest Endosc. 2013;78(1):1-7. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/46943. Last accessed June 22, 2017.



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