Works Cited

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press; 2013.

2. Meredith LS, Eisenman DP, Green BL, Basurto-Davila R, Cassells A, Tobin J. System factors affect the recognition and management of post-traumatic stress disorder by primary care clinicians. Med Care. 2009;47(6):686-694.

3. Schnurr PP, Spiro A, Vielhauer MJ, Findler MN, Hamblen JL. Trauma in the lives of older men: findings from the Normative Aging Study. J Clin Geropsychol. 2002;8(3):175-187.

4. Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(12):1048-1060.

5. National Center for PTSD. How Common is PTSD? Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/how-common-is-ptsd.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

6. Phoenix Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. Australian Guidelines for the Treatment of Adults with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Available at http://phoenixaustralia.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Phoenix-ASD-PTSD-Guidelines.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

7. Difede J, Olden M, Cukor J. Evidence-based treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Annu Rev Med. 2014;65:319-332.

8. Sonis J. PTSD in primary care—an update on evidence-based management. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013;15(7):373.

9. Meltzer EC, Averbuch T, Samet JH, et al. Discrepancy in diagnosis and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): treatment for the wrong reason. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2012;39(2):190-201.

10. Volpe JS. Traumatic Stress: An Overview. Available at http://www.aaets.org/article1.htm. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

11. Wainwright D. Book review of: "Shell Shock to PTSD: Military Psychiatry from 1900 to the Gulf War, Maudsley Monographs 47. Edgar Jones and Simon Wessely, Hove: Psychology Press, ISBN 1-84169-580-7." Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(5):1367-1368.

12. Gersons BP, Carlier IV. Post-traumatic stress disorder: the history of a recent concept. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:742-748.

13. Kinzie JD, Goetz RR. A century of controversy surrounding posttraumatic stress-spectrum syndromes: the impact on DSM-III and DSM-IV. J Trauma Stress. 1996;9(2):159-179.

14. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press; 1980.

15. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Management of PTSD in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg26. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

16. Meichenbaum D. A Clinical Handbook/Practical Therapist Manual for Assessing and Treating Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Ontario: Institute Press; 1994.

17. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press; 1994.

18. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press; 2000.

19. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PTSD and DSM-5. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/dsm5_criteria_ptsd.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

20. Jakovljević M, Brajković L, Jakšić N, Lončar M, Aukst-Margetić B, Lasić D. Posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) from different perspectives: a transdisciplinary integrative approach. Psychiatria Danub. 2012;24(3):246-255.

21. McHugh PR, Slavney PR. The Perspectives of Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press; 1998.

22. Tyrer P, Steinberg D. Models for Mental Disorders: Conceptual Models in Psychiatry. 3rd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1998.

23. Summerfield D. Cross-cultural perspective on the medicalization of human suffering. In: Rosen GM (ed). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2005: 233-245.

24. Frueh BC, Elhai JD, Kaloupek DG. Unresolved issues in the assessment of trauma exposure and posttraumatic reactions. In: Rosen GM (ed). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2005: 63-84.

25. Herbert JD, Sageman M. First do no harm: emerging guidelines for the treatment of posttraumatic reactions. In: Rosen GM (ed). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2005: 213-232.

26. Friedman MJ. PTSD and related disorders. In: Stein D, Friedman M, Blanco C (eds). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. 1st ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2011.

27. McNally RJ, Frueh BC. Why we should worry about malingering in the VA system: comment on Jackson et al. (2011). J Trauma Stress. 2012;25(4):454-456.

28. McNally RJ. Conceptual problems with the DSM-IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Rosen GM (ed). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2005.

29. Reivich KJ, Seligman MEP, McBride S. Master resilience training in the U.S. Army. Am Psychol. 2011;66(1):25-34.

30. Maguen S, Litz B. Moral injury in veterans of war. PTSD Res Q. 2012;23(1):1-6.

31. Amendolia RA. A Narrative Constructivist Perspective of Treatment of PTSD with Ericksonian Hypnosis and EMDR. Available at http://www.aaets.org/article32.htm. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

32. Storck K. Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Milkman HB, Vanberg KW, Gagliardi BA (eds). Criminal Conduct and Substance Abuse Treatment for Women in Correctional Settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing; 2008.

33. Kezelman C, Stavropoulos P. The Last Frontier: Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Complex Trauma and Trauma Informed Care and Service Delivery. Kirribilli: Adults Surviving Child Abuse; 2012.

34. Copeland WE, Keeler G, Angold A, Costello EJ. Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(5):577-584.

35. Herman JL. Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J Trauma Stress. 1992;5(3):377-391.

36. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The ISTSS Expert Consensus Treatment Guidelines for Complex PTSD in Adults. Available at http://www.istss.org/ISTSS_Main/media/Documents/ComplexPTSD.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

37. van der Kolk BA, Roth S, Pelcovitz D, Sunday S, Spinazzola J. Disorders of extreme stress: the empirical foundation of a complex adaptation to trauma. J Trauma Stress. 2005;18(5):389-399.

38. Ford JD, Courtois CA. Defining and understanding complex trauma and complex traumatic stress disorders. In: Courtois CA, Ford JD (eds). Treating Complex Stress Disorders: Scientific Foundations and Therapeutic Models. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2013.

39. Gradus JL. Epidemiology of PTSD. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/PTSD-overview/epidemiological-facts-ptsd.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

40. Miller MW, Wolf EJ, Kilpatrick D, et al. The prevalence and latent structure of proposed DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. national and veteran samples. Psychol Trauma. 2013;5(6):501-512.

41. Haagsma JA, Ringburg AN, van Lieshout EM, et al. Prevalence rate, predictors and long-term course of probable posttraumatic stress disorder after major trauma: a prospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12(1):236.

42. Breslau N, Kessler RC, Chilcoat HD, Schultz LR, Davis GC, Andreski P. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(7):626-632.

43. Perlstein P, Motta RW. An investigation of potential Holocaust-related secondary trauma in the third generation. Traumatology. 2013;19(2):95-106.

44. Braga LL, Mello MF, Fiks JP. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:134.

45. Yehuda R, Bell A, Bierer LM, Schmeidler J. Maternal, not paternal, PTSD is related to increased risk for PTSD in offspring of Holocaust survivors. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42(13):1104-1111.

46. Prigerson HG, Horowitz MJ, Jacobs SC, et al. Prolonged grief disorder: psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-5 and ICD-11. PLoS Med. 2009;6(8):e1000121.

47. Maercker A, Nzoj H. The younger sibling of PTSD: similarities and differences between complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2010;1:5558.

48. Santiago PN, Ursano RJ, Gray CL, et al. A systematic review of PTSD prevalence and trajectories in DSM-5 defined trauma exposed populations: intentional and non-intentional traumatic events. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e59236.

49. Ackerman PT, Newton JE, McPherson WB, Jones JG, Dykman RA. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric diagnoses in three groups of abused children (sexual, physical, and both). Child Abuse Negl. 1998;22(8):759-774.

50. O'Toole BI, Marshall RP, Grayson DA, et al. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: III. Psychological health of Australian Vietnam veterans and its relationship to combat. Int J Epidemiol. 1996;25(2):331-340.

51. Berninger A, Webber MP, Cohen HW, et al. Trends of elevated PTSD risk in firefighters exposed to the World Trade Center disaster: 2001–2005. Public Health Rep. 2010;125(4):556-566.

52. Solomon Z, Mikulincer M. Trajectories of PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):659-666.

53. Reed PL, Anthony JC, Breslau N. Incidence of drug problems in young adults exposed to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: do early life experiences and predispositions matter? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(12):1435-1442.

54. Yule W, Bolton D, Udwin O, Boyle S, O'Ryan D, Nurrish J. The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: I: the incidence and course of PTSD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41(4):503-511.

55. Bolton D, O'Ryan D, Udwin O, Boyle S, Yule W. The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence. II: general psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41(4):513-523.

56. Mueser KT, Taub J. Trauma and PTSD among adolescents with severe emotional disorders involved in multiple service systems. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59(6):627-634.

57. Kessler RC. Posttraumatic stress disorder: the burden to the individual and to society. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(Suppl 5):4-12.

58. Chan AOM, Medicine M, Air TM, McFarlane AC. Posttraumatic stress disorder and its impact on the economic and health costs of motor vehicle accidents in South Australia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(2):175-181.

59. Walker EA, Katon W, Russo J, Ciechanowski P, Newman E, Wagner AW. Health care costs associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(4):369-374.

60. Krysinska K, Lester D. Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide risk: a systematic review. Arch Suicide Res. 2010;14(1):1-23.

61. Tanielian T, Jaycox LH, Schell TL, et al. Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery. Available at https://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG720.html. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

62. Wood DP, Murphy J, McLay R, et al. Cost effectiveness of virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring for the treatment of combat related post-traumatic stress disorder. Annu Rev CyberTherapy and Telemedicine. 2009;7:223.

63. McFarlane AC, Hodson SE, Van Hooff M, Davies C, Australia Department of Defense. Mental Health in the Australian Defense Force. 2010 ADF Mental Health and Wellbeing Study: Full Report. Canberra: Australian Department of Defense; 2011.

64. Hejmanowski TS, Cuffe SP. Alone in a crowded room: the continuum of post-traumatic stress. Northeast Florida Med. 2011;62(3):15-22.

65. Norman S, Hamblen JL, Schnurr PP, Eftekhari A. Overview of Psychotherapy for PTSD. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/treatment/overview/overview-treatment-research.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

66. Kulka RA. Trauma and the Vietnam War Generation: Report of Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel; 1990.

67. Kang HK, Natelson BH, Mahan CM, Lee KY, Murphy FM. Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness among Gulf War veterans: a population-based survey of 30,000 veterans. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(2):141-148.

68. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense. Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress. Available at https://www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/MH/ptsd/cpg_PTSD-FULL-201011612.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

69. Hoge CW, Castro CA, Messer SC, McGurk D, Cotting DI, Koffman RL. Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(1):13-22.

70. Thomas JL, Wilk JE, Riviere LA, McGurk D, Castro CA, Hoge CW. Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(6):614-623.

71. Iversen AC, Fear NT, Ehlers A, et al. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder among UK Armed Forces personnel. Psychol Med. 2008;38(4):511-522.

72. Seifert AE, Polusny MA, Murdoch M. The association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of U.S. army soldiers. Mil Med. 2011;176(2):176-181.

73. Elder GA, Mitsis EM, Ahlers ST, Cristian A. Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010;33(4):757-781.

74. Stein MB McAllister TW. Exploring the convergence of post-traumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(7):768-776.

75. U.S. Department of Defense. Suicide Event Report, 2015. Available at http://www.dspo.mil/Portals/113/Documents/CY%202015%20DoDSER%20Annual%20Report.pdf?ver=2017-06-23-151226-953. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

76. Kaplan A. Can A Suicide Scale Predict the Unpredictable? Available at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/suicide/can-suicide-scale-predict-unpredictable. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

77. Riggs DS, Byrne CA, Weathers FW, Litz BT. The quality of the intimate relationships of male Vietnam veterans: problems associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. J Traum Stress. 1998;11(1):87-101.

78. Panagioti M, Gooding PA, Dunn G, Tarrier N. Pathways to suicidal behavior in post-traumatic stress disorder. J Traum Stress. 2011;24(2):137-145.

79. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prev Med. 1998;14(4):245-258.

80. Molnar BE, Buka SL, Kessler RC. Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: results from the national comorbidity survey. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(5):753-760.

81. Whealin J, Barnett E. Child Sexual Abuse. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/trauma/other/child_sexual_abuse.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

82. Berlin LJ, Appleyard K, Dodge KA. Intergenerational continuity in child maltreatment: mediating mechanisms and implications for prevention. Child Dev. 2011;82(1):162-176.

83. Glasser M, Kolvin I, Campbell D, Glasser A, Leitch I, Farrelly S. Cycle of child sexual abuse: links between being a victim and becoming a perpetrator. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;179:482-494.

84. Whitaker DJ, Le B, Karl Hanson R, et al. Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: a review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse Negl. 2008;32(5):529-548.

85. McGregor K, Julich S, Glover M, Gautam J. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences. J Child Sex Abus. 2010;19(3):239-254.

86. Roberts AL, Austin SB, Corliss HL, Vandermorris AK, Koenen KC. Pervasive trauma exposure among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(12):2433-2441.

87. Davis TE, Grills-Taquechel AE, Ollendick TH. The psychological impact from Hurricane Katrina: effects of displacement and trauma exposure on university students. Behav Ther. 2010;41(3):340-349.

88. Keskinen-Rosenqvist R, Michelsen H, Schulman A, Wahlstrom L. Physical symptoms 14 months after a natural disaster in individuals with or without injury are associated with different types of exposure. J Psychosom Res. 2011;71(3):180-187.

89. Heir T, Piatigorsky A, Weisaeth L. Posttraumatic stress symptom clusters associations with psychopathology and functional impairment. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24(8):936-940.

90. Mohr DC, Vella L, Hart SL, Heckman T, Simon G. The effect of telephone-administered psychotherapy on symptoms of depression and attrition: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol. 2008;15(3):243-253.

91. Tuerk PW, Yoder M, Ruggiero KJ, Gros DF, Acierno R. A pilot study of prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder delivered via telehealth technology. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(1):116-123.

92. Bouchard S, Paquin B, Payeur R, et al. Delivering cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia in videoconference. Telemed J E Health. 2004;10(1):13-25.

93. Nygaard E, Wentzel-Larsen T, Hussain A, Heir T. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:195.

94. Heir T, Piatigorsky A, Weisaeth L. Longitudinal changes in recalled perceived life threat after a natural disaster. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194(6):510-514.

95. Neria Y, Olfson M, Gameroff MJ, et al. Long-term course of probable PTSD after the 9/11 attacks: a study in urban primary care.J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(4):474-482.

96. Foa EB, Cahill SP, Boscarino JA, et al. Social, psychological, and psychiatric interventions following terrorist attacks: recommendations for practice and research. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30(10):1806-1817.

97. Berger W, Coutinho ES, Figueira I, et al. Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers. Soc Psychiatry and Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(6):1001-1011.

98. Haugen PT, Evces M, Weiss DS. Treating posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32(5):370-380.

99. Declercq F, Meganck R, Deheegher J, Van Hoorde H. Frequency of and subjective response to critical incidents in the prediction of PTSD in emergency personnel. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24(1):133-136.

100. Komarovskaya I, Maguen S, McCaslin SE, et al. The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(10):1332-1336.

101. Maguen S, Metzler TJ, McCaslin SE, et al. Routine work environment stress and PTSD symptoms in police officers. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197(10):754-760.

102. Meffert SM, Metzler TJ, Henn-Haase C, et al. A prospective study of trait anger and PTSD symptoms in police. J Trauma Stress. 2008;21(4):410-416.

103. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Indirect Trauma. Available at https://www.istss.org/ISTSS_Main/media/Documents/ISTSSBr-Indirect_1.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

104. Summerall EL. Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD: Focus on Veterans. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/co-occurring/traumatic-brain-injury-ptsd.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

105. Bryant RA, O'Donnell ML, Creamer M, McFarlane AC, Clark CR, Silove D. The psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(3):312-320.

106. Sterling M, Hendrikz J, Kenardy J. Similar factors predict disability and posttraumatic stress disorder trajectories after whiplash injury. Pain. 2011;152(6):1272-1278.

107. O'Donnell ML, Creamer M, Pattison P. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma: understanding comorbidity. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(8):1390-1396.

108. Liedl A, O'Donnell M, Creamer M, et al. Support for the mutual maintenance of pain and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Psychol Med. 2010;40(7):1215-1223.

109. Miles SH, Garcia-Peltoniemi RE. Torture survivors: what to ask, how to document. J Fam Pract. 2012;61(4):E1-E6.

110. Fazel M, Wheeler J, Danesh J. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet. 2005;365(9467):1309-1314.

111. Volpellier M. Physical forensic signs of sexual torture in children: a guideline for non-specialized medical examiners. Torture. 2009;19(2):157-166.

112. Steel Z, Chey T, Silove D, Mamane C, Bryant RA, van Ommeren M. Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;302(5):537-549.

113. Robertson CL, Halcon L, Savik K, et al. Somali and Oromo refugee women: trauma and associated factors. J Adv Nurs. 2006;56(6):577-587.

114. Quiroga J, Jaranson JM. Politically-motivated torture and its survivors. Torture. 2005;15:1-112.

115. Mollica RF, Lyoo IK, Chernoff MC, et al. Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(11):1221-1232.

116. Hooberman JB, Rosenfeld B, Lhewa D, Rasmussen A, Keller A. Classifying the torture experiences of refugees living in the United States. J Interpers Violence. 2007;22(1):108-123.

117. Loncar M, Henigsberg N, Hrabac P. Mental health consequences in men exposed to sexual abuse during the war in Croatia and Bosnia. J Interpers Violence. 2010;25(2):191-203.

118. Oosterhoff P, Zwanikken P, Ketting E. Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: an open secret. Reprod Health Matters. 2004;12(23):68-77.

119. Olsen DR, Montgomery E, Carlsson J, Foldsprang A. Prevalent pain and pain level among torture survivors: a follow-up study.Dan Med Bull. 2006;53(2):210-214.

120. McColl H, Higson-Smith C, Gjerding S, et al. Rehabilitation of torture survivors in five countries: common themes and challenges. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2010;4:16.

121. Worthen M, Rathod SD, Cohen G, et al. Anger problems and posttraumatic stress disorder in male and female National Guard and Reserve Service members. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;55:52-58.

122. Morland LA. Treating Anger and Aggression in Populations with PTSD. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/consult/2016lecture_archive/10192016_lecture_slides.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

123. Jakupcak M, Conybeare D, Phelps L, et al. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20(6):945-954.

124. Maguen S, Lucenko BA, Reger MA, et al. The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in Iraq war veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(1):86-90.

125. McFall ME, Wright PW, Donovan DM, Raskind M. Multidimensional assessment of anger in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1999;40(3):216-220.

126. Creamer M, Elliott P, Forbes D, Biddle D, Hawthorne G. Treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: two-year follow-up. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19(5):675-685.

127. National Center for PTSD. Transcript for: Anger, Aggression and PTSD. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/continuing_ed/transcript-pdf/anger_aggression.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

128. Holtzworth-Munroe A. Social skill deficits in maritally violent men: interpreting the data using a social information processing model. Clin Psychol Rev. 1992;12(6):605-617.

129. Miller NA, Najavits LM. Creating trauma-informed correctional care: a balance of goals and environment. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2012;3:17246.

130. Ardino V. Offending behaviour: the role of trauma and PTSD. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2012;3:1-5.

131. Komarovskaya I. Trauma, PTSD, and the Cycle of Violence Among Incarcerated Men and Women [dissertation]. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia; 2009.

132. Harlow CW. Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates and Probationers. Available at https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/parip.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

133. Johnson RJ, Ross MW, Taylor WC, Williams ML, Carjaval RI, Peters RJ. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among incarcerated males in county jail. Child Abuse Negl. 2006;30(1):75-86.

134. National Prisons Rape Elimination Commission. Standards for the Prevention, Detection, Response, and Monitoring of Sexual Abuse in Adult Prisons and Jails. Available at https://cybercemetery.unt.edu/archive/nprec/20090820155226/http://nprec.us/publication/standards/adult_prisons_and_jails. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

135. Freedman D, Hemenway D. Precursors of lethal violence: a death row sample. In: Arrigo BA, Shipley SL (eds). Introduction to Forensic Psychology, 2E: Issues and Controversies in Law Enforcement and Corrections. London: Academic Press; 2005.

136. Evans C, Ehlers A, Mezey G, Clark DM. Intrusive memories in perpetrators of violent crime: emotions and cognitions. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2007;75(1):134-144.

137. Evans C, Mezey G, Ehlers A. Amnesia for violent crimes among young offenders. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol. 2009;20(1):85-106.

138. Miles SR, Menefee DS, Wanner J, Teten Tharp A, Kent TA. The relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsive aggression in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. J Interpers Violence. 2016;31(10):1795-1816.

139. Grann M, Wedin I. Risk factors for recidivism among spousal assault and spousal homicide offenders. Psychology Crime & Law. 2002;8(1):5-23.

140. Cauffman E, Feldman SS, Waterman J, Steiner H. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female juvenile offenders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;37(11):1209-1216.

141. Joseph S, Dalgleish T, Thrasher S, Yule W. Impulsivity and post-traumatic stress. Pers Indiv Dif. 1997;22(2):279-281.

142. van der Kolk BA. The complexity of adaptation to trauma: self-regulation, stimulus discrimination, and characterological development. In: van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L (eds). Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2007: 182-213.

143. Harris M, Fallot RD. Using Trauma Theory to Design Service Systems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2001.

144. Hodas GR. Responding to Childhood Trauma: The Promise and Practice of Trauma-Informed Care. Available at http://www.childrescuebill.org/VictimsOfAbuse/RespondingHodas.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

145. Andrews DA, Bonta J, Hoge RD. Classification for effective rehabilitation: rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice Behav. 1990;17(1):19-52.

146. Landenberger NA, Lipsey MW. The positive effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders: a meta-analysis of factors associated with effective treatment. J Exp Criminol. 2005;1(4):451-476.

147. Gendreau P, Goggin C, Cullen FT, Andrews DA. The effects of community sanctions and incarceration on recidivism. Forum Corrections Res. 2000;12(2):10-13.

148. Latessa EJ, Cullen FT, Gendreau P. Beyond correctional quackery: professionalism and the possibility of effective treatment. Fed Probat. 2002;66(2):43-49.

149. Morrissey J, Jackson E, Ellis A, Amaro H, Brown V, Najavits L. Twelve-month outcomes of trauma-informed interventions for women with co-occurring disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(10):1213-1222.

150. Weierstall R, Schaal1 S, Schalinski I, Dusingizemungu JP, Elbert T. The thrill of being violent as an antidote to posttraumatic stress disorder in Rwandese genocide perpetrators. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2011;2:6345.

151. Morris MC, Compas BE, Garber J. Relations among posttraumatic stress disorder, comorbid major depression, and HPA function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32(4):301-315.

152. George SA, Stout SA, Tan M, Knox D, Liberzon I. Early handling attenuates enhancement of glucocorticoid receptors in the prefrontal cortex in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2013;3(1):22.

153. Inslicht SS, Otte C, McCaslin SE, et al. Cortisol awakening response prospectively predicts peritraumatic and acute stress reactions in police officers. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70(11):1055-1062.

154. Ressler KJ, Mayberg HS. Targeting abnormal neural circuits in mood and anxiety disorders: from the laboratory to the clinic.Nat Neurosci. 2007;10(9):1116-1124.

155. Rauch SL, Shin LM, Phelps EA. Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research—past, present, and future. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:376-382.

156. Suvak MK, Barrett LS. Considering PTSD from the perspective of brain processes: a psychological construction approach. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24(1):3-24.

157. Heim C, Nemeroff CB. Neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectr. 2009;14(1 Suppl 1):13-24.

158. de Kleine RA, Rothbaum BO, van Minnen A. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2013;4:21626.

159. Neumeister A, Corsi-Travali S, Green CR. The role of BDNF-TrkB signaling in the pathogenesis of PTSD. J Depress Anxiety. 2013;S4:006.

160. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide, 2nd Edition. Available at http://www.nctsn.org/content/psychological-first-aid. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

161. Zohar J, Yahalom H, Koslovsky N, et al. High-dose hydrocortisone immediately after trauma may alter the trajectory of PTSD: interplay between clinical and animal studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21(11):796-809.

162. Ginzburg K, Solomon Z, Bleich A. Repressive coping style, acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder after myocardial infarction. Psychosom Med. 2002;64(5):748-757.

163. Mayou RA, Ehlers A, Hobbs M. Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims: three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;176:589-593.

164. Gelpin E, Bonne O, Peri T, Brandes D, Shalev AY. Treatment of recent trauma survivors with benzodiazepines: a prospective study. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57(9):390-394.

165. Parsons RG, Ressler KJ. Implications of memory modulation for post-traumatic stress and fear disorders. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16(2):146-153.

166. Stoddard FJ Jr, Sorrentino EA, Ceranoglu TA, et al. Preliminary evidence for the effects of morphine on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in one- to four-year-olds with burns. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30(5):836-843.

167. Saxe G, Stoddard F, Courtney D, et al. Relationship between acute morphine and the course of PTSD in children with burns.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(8):915-921.

168. Holbrook TL, Galarneau MR, Dye JL, et al. Morphine use after combat injury in Iraq and post-traumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(2):110-117.

169. Bryant RA, Creamer M, O'Donnell M, Silove D, McFarlane AC. A study of the protective function of acute morphine administration on subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65(5):438-440.

170. Lupien SJ, Maheu F, Tu M, Fiocco A, Schramek TE. The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: implications for the field of brain and cognition. Brain Cogn. 2007;65(3):209-237.

171. Schelling G, Kilger E, Roozendaal B, et al. Stress doses of hydrocortisone, traumatic memories, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after cardiac surgery: a randomized study. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55(6):627-633.

172. Schelling G, Briegel J, Roozendaal B, et al. The effect of stress doses of hydrocortisone during septic shock on posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50:978-985.

173. Zohar J, Sonnino R, Juven-Wetzler A, Cohen H. Can posttraumatic stress disorder be prevented? CNS Spectr. 2009;14(1 Suppl 1):44-51.

174. Amos T, Stein DJ, Ipser JC. Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;7:CD006239.

175. Bryant RA. An update of acute stress disorder. PTSD Res Q. 2013;24(1):1050-1835.

176. Ursano RJ, Bell C, Eth S, et al. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(11 Suppl):3-31.

177. Jovanovic AA, Aleksandric BV, Dunjic D, Todorovic V. Family hardiness and social support as predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiat Psychol Law. 2004;11(2):263-268.

178. Liebschutz J, Saitz R, Brower V, et al. PTSD in urban primary care: high prevalence and low physician recognition. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(6):719-726.

179. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5). Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/screens/pc-ptsd.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

180. Weathers FW, Blake DD, Schnurr PP. The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5). Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/te-measures/life_events_checklist.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

181. Weathers FW, Blake DD, Schnurr PP. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/adult-int/caps.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

182. Weathers FW, Litz BT, Keane TM, Palmieri PA, Marx BP, Schnurr PP. The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/adult-sr/ptsd-checklist.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

183. Frueh BC, Brady KL, de Arellano MA. Racial differences in combat-related PTSD: empirical findings and conceptual issues. Clin Psychol Rev. 1998;18(3):287-305.

184. Pittman JO. Latino veterans with PTSD: a systematic review. Behav Sci (Basel). 2014;4(3):320-340.

185. American Psychiatric Association. Understanding ICD-10-CM and DSM-5: A Quick Guide for Psychiatrists and Other Mental Health Clinicians. Available at http://www.socalpsych.org/Understanding_ICD_02-21-14_FINAL.PDF. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

186. Miller MW, Wolf EJ, Keane TM. Posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: new criteria and controversies. Clin Psychol: Sci Pract. 2014;21(3):208-220.

187. Boals A, Riggs SA, Kraha A. Coping with stressful or traumatic events: what aspects of trauma reactions are associated with health outcomes? Stress Health. 2013;29(2):156-163.

188. Kelley LP, Weathers FW, Mason EA, Pruneau GM. Association of life threat and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. J Trauma Stress. 2012;25(4):408-415.

189. Duffy M, Gillespie K, Clark DM. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of terrorism and other civil conflict in Northern Ireland: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;334(7604):1147.

190. Shalev AY, Ankri Y, Israeli-Shalev Y, Peleg T, Adessky R, Freedman S. Prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder by early treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(2):166-176.

191. Gillespie K, Duffy M, Hackmann A, Clark DM. Community-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behav Res Ther. 2002;40(4):345-357.

192. Resick PA, Nishith P, Weaver TL, Astin, MC, Feuer CA. A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(4):867-879.

193. Gros DF, Price M, Strachan M, Yuen EK, Milanak ME, Acierno R. Behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure: an investigation of relative symptom changes in PTSD and depression during the course of integrated behavioral activation, situational exposure, and imaginal exposure techniques. Behav Modif. 2012;36(4):580-599.

194. Nixon RD, Nearmy DM. Treatment of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: a pilot study. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24(4):451-455.

195. Richardson JD, Fikretoglu D, Liu A, McIntosh D. Aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of military-related PTSD with major depression: a retrospective chart review. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11(86).

196. Flory JD, Yehuda R. Comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: alternative explanations and treatment considerations. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17(2):141-150.

197. Feldman DB. Posttraumatic stress disorder at the end of life: extant research and proposed psychosocial treatment approach. Palliat Support Care. 2011;9(4):407-418.

198. Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, Cox AL, Engel CC, Castro CA. Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(5):453-463.

199. Bryant RA. Disentangling mild traumatic brain injury and stress reactions. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(5):525-527.

200. Carlson KF, Kehle SM, Meis LA, et al. Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the evidence. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2011;26(2):103-115.

201. Belsher BE, Tiet QQ, Garvert DW, Rosen CS. Compensation and treatment: disability benefits and outcomes of U.S. veterans receiving residential PTSD treatment. J Trauma Stress. 2012;25(5):494-502.

202. Cloitre M, Stovall-McClough KC, Miranda R, Chemtob CM. Therapeutic alliance, negative mood regulation, and treatment outcome in child abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(3):411-416.

203. Ruglass LM, Miele GM, Hien DA, et al. Helping alliance, retention, and treatment outcomes: a secondary analysis from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network Women and Trauma Study. Subst Use Misuse. 2012;47(6)695-707.

204. Hatcher RL, Barends AW. Patients' view of the alliance in psychotherapy: exploratory factor analysis of three alliance measures.J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64(6):1326-1336.

205. McLaughlin AA, Keller SM, Feeny NC, Youngstrom EA, Zoellner LA. Patterns of therapeutic alliance: rupture-repair episodes in prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2014;82(1):112-121.

206. Collins J, Hyer L. Treatment expectancy among psychiatric inpatients. J Clin Psychol. 1986;42(4):562-569.

207. Borkovec TD, Costello E. Efficacy of applied relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61(4):611-619.

208. Chambless DL, Tran GQ, Glass CR. Predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia. J Anxiety Disord. 1997;11(3):221-240.

209. Price M, Anderson PL. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder. Psychotherapy. 2012;49(2):173-179.

210. Porter M, Haslam N. Predisplacement and postdisplacement factors associated with mental health of refugees and internally displaced persons: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005;294(5):602-612.

211. Hinton DE, Lewis-Fernández R. The cross-cultural validity of posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for DSM-5. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28(9):783-801.

212. d'Ardenne P, Farmer E, Ruaro L, Priebe S. Not lost in translation: protocols for interpreting trauma-focused CBT. Behav Cogn Psychoth. 2007;35(3):303-316.

213. Miller KE, Rasmussen A. War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(1):7-16.

214. Prochaska JO, Diclemente CC. Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983;51(3):390-395.

215. Prochaska JO, Redding CA, Evers KE. The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K (eds). Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice. 5th ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2015: 125-148.

216. Pro-Change Behavior Systems. The Transtheoretical Model. Available at https://www.prochange.com/transtheoretical-model-of-behavior-change. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

217. Murphy RT, Rosen CS, Cameron RP, Thompson KE. Development of a group treatment for enhancing motivation to change PTSD symptoms. Cogn Behav Pract. 2002;9(4):308-316.

218. Clapp JD, Beck JG. Treatment of PTSD in older adults: do cognitive-behavioral interventions remain viable? Cogn Behav Pract. 2012;19(1):126-135.

219. Bottche M, Kuwert P, Knaevelsrud C. Posttraumatic stress disorder in older adults: an overview of characteristics and treatment approaches. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;27(3):230-239.

220. Munley PH, Bains DS, Frazee J, Schwartz LT. Inpatient PTSD treatment: a study of pretreatment measures, treatment dropout, and therapist ratings of response to treatment. J Trauma Stress. 1994;7(2):319-325.

221. Scheeringa MS, Weems CF, Cohen JA, Amaya-Jackson L, Guthrie D. Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in three through six year-old children: a randomized clinical trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52(8):853-860.

222. Deblinger E, Stauffer L, Steer R. Comparative efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually abused and their nonoffending mothers. Child Maltreatment. 2001;6:332-343.

223. Foa EB, Rothbaum BO, Riggs DS, Murdock TB. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991;59(5):715-723.

224. Jaycox LH, Foa EB, Morral AR. Influence of emotional engagement and habituation on exposure therapy for PTSD. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66(1):185-192.

225. Vogt D. Research on Women, Trauma and PTSD. Available at https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/treatment/women/women-trauma-ptsd.asp. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

226. Marks I, Lovell K, Noshirvani H, Livanou M, Thrasher S. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: a controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(4):317-325.

227. Stein DJ, Ipser J, McAnda N. Pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of meta-analyses and treatment guidelines. CNS Spectr. 2009;14(1 Suppl 1):25-31.

228. Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Breslau J, Breslau N, Koenen KC. Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychological Med. 2011;41:71-83.

229. Blain LM, Galovski TE, Robinson T. Gender differences in recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder: a critical review. Aggression Violent Behav. 2010;15:463-474.

230. Neuner F, Onyut PL, Ertl V, Odenwald M, Schauer E, Elbert T. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(4):686-694.

231. Neuner F, Schauer M, Klaschik C, Karunakara U, Elbert T. A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counseling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(4):579-587.

232. Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ, Cohen JA (eds). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2009.

233. Glynn SM, Drebing CE, Penk W. Psychosocial rehabilitation. In: Foa EB, Keane TM, Friedman MJ, Cohen JA (eds). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2009: 388-426.

234. Smith PL, Moss SB. Psychologist impairment: what is it, how can it be prevented, and what can be done to address it? Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2009;16(1):1-15.

235. Phelps A, Lloyd D, Creamer M, Forbes D. Caring for carers in the aftermath of trauma. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma. 2009;18(3):313-330.

236. Deployment Health Clinical Center. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Available at http://www.pdhealth.mil/sites/default/files/images/docs/prolonged-exposure-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

237. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Available at https://ahrq.cmeuniversity.com/courses/110619/AHRQ.110619.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

238. Foa E, Zoellner LA, Feeny NC, Hembree EA, Alvarez-Conrad J, Does imaginal exposure exacerbate PTSD symptoms? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(4):1022-1028.

239. van Minnen A, Harned MS, Zoellner L, Mills K. Examining potential contraindications for prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2012;3(10):25.

240. van Minnen A Zoellner LA, Harned MS, Mills K. Changes in comorbid conditions after prolonged exposure for PTSD: a literature review. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015;17(3):549.

241. Beck AT. The current state of cognitive therapy: a 40-year retrospective. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(9):953-959.

242. Resick PA, Monson CM, Chard KM. Cognitive Processing Therapy: Veteran/Military Version. Available at http://alrest.org/pdf/CPT_Manual_-_Modified_for_PRRP%282%29.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

243. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress. Available at https://www.recoverymonth.gov/events/eye-movement-desensitization-reprocessing-co-occurring-posttraumatic-stress. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

244. Kabat-Zinn J. Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. New York, NY: Hyperion; 1994.

245. Jennings A. Models for Developing Trauma-Informed Behavioral Health Systems and Trauma-Specific Services. Available at http://www.theannainstitute.org/MDT.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

246. Foa E. Effective Treatments for PTSD. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2009.

247. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Secondary Traumatic Stress. Available at http://www.nctsn.org/resources/topics/secondary-traumatic-stress. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

248. Bond GR, Drake RE, Becker DR. An update on randomized controlled trials of evidence-based supported employment. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2008;31(4):280-290.

249. Dieterich M, Irving CB, Bergman H, Khokhar MA, Park B, Marshall M. Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;6:CD007906.

250. Dixon L, McFarlane WR, Lefley H, et al. Evidence-based practices for services to families of people with psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52(7):903-910.

251. Mueser KT, Corrigan PW, Hilton DW, et al. Illness management and recovery: a review of the research. Psychiatr Serv. 2002;53(10):1272-1284.

252. Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Australiasian Faculty of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: Realising the Health Benefits of Work. Available at https://www.racp.edu.au/docs/default-source/advocacy-library/realising-the-health-benefits-of-work.pdf?sfvrsn=10. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

253. Karsen EF, Watts BV, Holtzheimer PE. Review of the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation for post-traumatic stress disorder. Brain Stimul. 2014;7(2):151-157.

254. Yan T, Xie Q, Zheng Z, Zou K, Wang L. Different frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2017;89:125-135.

255. Clark C, Cole J, Winter C, Williams K, Grammer G. A review of transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015;17(10):83.

256. Hollifield M, Sinclair-Lian N, Warner TD, Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled pilot trial. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(6):504-513.

257. Telles S, Singh N, Balkrishna A. Managing mental health disorders resulting from trauma through yoga: a review. Depression Res Treatment. 2012;401513.

258. Staples JK, Hamilton MF, Uddo M. A yoga program for the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in veterans. Mil Med. 2013;178(8):854-860.

259. Ochberg FM. The counting method for ameliorating traumatic memories. J Trauma Stress. 1996;9(4):873-880.

260. Donovan MR, Glue P, Kolluri S, Emir B. Comparative efficacy of antidepressants in preventing relapse in anxiety disorder—a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2010;123(1-3):9-16.

261. Benedek DM, Friedman MJ, Zatzick D, Ursano RJ. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Available at https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/acutestressdisorderptsd-watch.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

262. Steckler T, Risbrough V. Pharmacological treatment of PTSD: established and new approaches. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62(2):617-627.

263. Khouzam HR. Pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Outcomes Manage. 2013;20(1):21-33.

264. Davidson J, Rothbaum BO, Tucker P, Asnis G, Benattia I, Musgnung JJ. Venlafaxine extended release in posttraumatic stress disorder: a sertraline- and placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26(3):259-267.

265. Raskind MA, Peterson K, Williams T, et al. A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(9):1003-1010.

266. Neylan TC, Lenoci M, Samuelson KW, et al. No improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with guanfacine treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(12):2186-2188.

267. Poundja J, Sanche S, Tremblay J, Brunet A. Trauma reactivation under the influence of propranolol: an examination of clinical predictors. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2012;3:15470.

268. Brunet A, Saumier D, Liu A, Streiner DL, Tremblay J, Pitman RK. Reduction of PTSD symptoms with pre-reactivation propranolol therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2018; [Epub ahead of print].

269. Feder A, Parides MK, Murrough JW, et al. Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(6):681-688.

270. Bontempo A, Panza KE, Bloch MH. D-cycloserine augmentation of behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73(4):533-537.

271. Norberg MM, Krystal JH, Tolin DF. A meta-analysis of D-cycloserine and the facilitation of fear extinction and exposure therapy. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63(12):1118-1126.

272. Kushner M, Kim S, Donahue C, et al. D-cycloserine augmented exposure therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62(8):835-838.

273. de Kleine RA, Hendriks GJ, Kusters WJ, Broekman TG, van Minnen A. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of d-cycloserine to enhance exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71(11):962-968.

274. Litz BT, Salters-Pedneault K, Steenkamp MM, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of d-cycloserine and exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46(9):1184-1190.

275. Smits JA, Rosenfield D, Otto MW, et al. D-cycloserine enhancement of fear extinction is specific to successful exposure sessions: evidence from the treatment of height phobia. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(11):1054-1058.

276. Difede J, Cukor J, Wyka K, et al. D-cycloserine augmentation of exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39(5):1052-1058.

277. Phelps EA, Delgado MR, Nearing KI, LeDoux JE. Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC. Neuron. 2004;43(6):897-905.

278. Johansen PØ, Krebs TS. How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23(4):389-391.

279. Mithoefer MC, Wagner MT, Mithoefer AT, et al. Durability of improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and absence of harmful effects or drug dependency after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy: a prospective long-term follow-up study. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(1):28-39.

280. 280. Oehen P, Traber R, Widmer V, Schnyder U. A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(1):40-52.

281. Suris A, Smith J, Powell C, North CS. Interfering with the reconsolidation of traumatic memory: sirolimus as a novel agent for treating veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2013;25(1):33-40.

282. Gutner CA, Casement MD, Stavitsky Gilbert K, Resick PA. Change in sleep symptoms across cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure: a longitudinal perspective. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51(12):817-822.

283. Ramage AE, Laird AR, Eickhoff SB, et al. A coordinate-based meta-analysis of trauma processing in PTSD: associations with the pain monitoring network. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(9):262.

284. Moeller-Bertram T, Keltner J, Strigo IA. Pain and post-traumatic stress disorder: review of clinical and experimental evidence. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62(2):586-597.

285. Shipherd JC, Keyes M, Jovanovic T, et al. Veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: what about comorbid chronic pain? J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007;44(2):153-166.

286. Lew HL, Otis JD, Tun C, Kerns RD, Clark ME, Cifu DX. Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans: polytrauma clinical triad. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46(6):697-702.

287. Sharp TJ. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in chronic pain patients. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004;8(2):111-115.

288. Ballantyne JC, Shin NS. Efficacy of opioids for chronic pain: a review of the evidence. Clin J Pain. 2008;24(6):469-478.

289. Eriksen J, Sjøgren P, Bruera E, Ekholm O, Rasmussen NK. Critical issues on opioids in chronic non-cancer pain: an epidemiological study. Pain. 2006;125(1-2):172-179.

290. Edlund MJ, Steffick D, Hudson T, Harris KM, Sullivan M. Risk factors for clinically recognized opioid abuse and dependence among veterans using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Pain. 2007;129(3):355-362.

291. Schwartz AC, Bradley R, Penza KM, et al. Pain medication use among patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychosomatics. 2006;47(2):136-142.

292. Seal KH, Shi Y, Cohen G, et al. Association of mental health disorders with prescription opioids and high-risk opioid use in U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. JAMA. 2012;307(9):940-947.

293. Clapp JD, Masci J, Bennett SA, Beck JG. Physical and psychosocial functioning following motor vehicle trauma: relationships with chronic pain, posttraumatic stress, and medication use. Eur J Pain. 2010;14(4):418-425.

294. Chemtob CM, Novaco RW, Hamada RS, Gross DM, Smith G. Anger regulation deficits in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 1997;10(1):17-36.

295. Back SE, Brady KT, Sonne SC, Verduin ML. Symptom improvement in co-occurring PTSD and alcohol dependence. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194(9):690-696.

296. SIGMA Assessment Systems Inc. STAXI-2. Available at http://www.sigmaassessmentsystems.com/assessments/state-trait-anger-expression-inventory-2. Last accessed February 16, 2018.

297. Bohnert KM, Ilgen MA, Rosen CS, Desai RA, Austin K, Blow FC. The association between substance use disorders and risk of mortality among veterans with PTSD: variation by age cohort and mortality type. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;128(1-2):98-103.

298. Litt L. Clinical decision making in the treatment of complex PTSD and substance misuse. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(5):534-542.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Adults: A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network; 2013. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/43914. Last accessed March 14, 2018.

2. Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Work Group. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder. Version 3.0. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense; 2017. Summary retrieved from National Guideline Clearinghouse at https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/51046. Last accessed March 14, 2018.



Privacy Policy
Copyright © 2018 CE Resource, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.