Works Cited

1. Gregoratos G. Indications and recommendations for pacemaker therapy. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(8):1563-1570.

2. Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA. Cardiology patient pages: cardiac pacemakers from the patient's perspective. Circulation. 2002;105(18): 2136-2138.

3. Boyle J, Rost MK. Present status of cardiac pacing: a nursing perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2000;23(1):1-19.

4. Larson LW. Permanent cardiac pacing. JAAPA. 2000;13(2):61-62, 65-68, 71-72.

5. Kurtz SM, Ochoa JA, Lau E, et al. Implantation trends and patient profiles for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators in the United States: 1993–2006. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33(6):705-711.

6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves Expanded Indication for Certain Pacemakers and Defibrillators Used to Treat Heart Failure. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170112222905/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm392861.htm. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

7. Abraham WT, Hayes DL. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure. Circulation. 2003;108(21):2596-2603.

8. Gura MT, Foreman L. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure management. AACN Clin Issues. 2004;15(3):326-339.

9. Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al. 2009 focused update incorporated into the ACCF/AHA 2005 guidelines for the diagnos is and management of heart failure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(15):e1-e390.

10. Woods SL, Froelicher ES, Motzer SA, Bridges EJ. Cardiac Nursing. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.

11. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. How the Heart Works. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/how-heart-works. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

12. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Atrial Fibrillation. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/atrial-fibrillation. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

13. Conover MB. Understanding Electrocardiography. 8th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 2002.

14. Dubin D. Rapid Interpretation of EKGs. 6th ed. Tampa, FL: Cover Publishing Co.; 2000.

15. Beyerbach DM. Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/162245-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

16. Mallela VS, Ilankumaran V, Rao NS. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2004;4(4):201-212.

17. Medtronic. Living with a Heart Device: Living with a Heart Device. Available at https://www.medtronic.com/us-en/patients/treatments-therapies/living-with-heart-device.html. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

18. Heart Rhythm Society. Atrial Fibrillation. Available at https://www.upbeat.org/heart-rhythm-disorders/atrial-fibrillation. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

19. Ellenbogen KA, Wood MA (eds). Cardiac Pacing and ICDs. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.

20. Hayes DL, Asirvatham SJ, Friedman PA (eds). Cardiac Pacing, Defibrillation and Resynchronization: A Clinical Approach. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.

21. Moses HW, Mullin JC. A Practical Guide to Cardiac Pacing. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

22. Epstein AE, DiMarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update incorporated into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(3):e6-e75.

23. Sarko JA, Tiffany BR. Cardiac pacemakers: evaluation and management of malfunctions. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18(4):435-440.

24. Bernstein AD, Daubert JC, Fletcher RD, et al. The revised NASPE/BPEG generic code for antibradycardia, adaptive-rate, and multisite pacing. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2002;25(2):260-264.

25. Kenny T. The Nuts and Bolts of Cardiac Pacing. 2nd ed. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.

26. Ouali S, Neffeti E, Ghoul K, et al. DDD versus VVIR pacing in patients, ages 70 and over, with complete heart block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33(5):583-589.

27. Dharmendrakumar AP, Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Shah S, Gilliland Y. Clinical implications of left atrial enlargement: a review. Ochsner J. 2009;9(4):191-196.

28. Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Edgerton JR, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. Heart Rhythm. 2019;16(9):e129-e226.

29. Kusumoto FM, Calkins H, Boehmer J, et al. HRS/ACC/AHA expert consensus statement on the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients who are not included or not well represented in clinical trials. Circulation. 2014;130:94-125.

30. Heart Rhythm Society. Sick Sinus Syndrome. Available at https://www.upbeat.org/heart-rhythm-disorders/sick-sinus-syndrome. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

31. Gregoratos G. Sick sinus syndrome. Circulation. 2003;108:e143-e144.

32. Livingston MW, Overton DT. Sinus Bradycardia. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/760220-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

33. MedlinePlus. Sick Sinus Syndrome. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000161.htm. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

34. Budzikowski AS, Corsello AC, Daubert JP, Gaeta TJ, Levine MD, Shah AH. Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/162007-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

35. Paul S. Understanding advanced concepts in atrioventricular block. Crit Care Nurse. 2001;21(1):56-66.

36. Sovari AA, Gaeta TJ Kocheril AG, Levine MD. Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/161919-overview. Last accessed August 16, 2020.

37. Rosenthal L, McManus DD. Atrial Fibrillation. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/161919-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

38. Wijetunga MN, Schatz IJ. Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/153312-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

39. Wieling W, Krediet CT, Solari D, et al. At the heart of the arterial baroreflex: a physiological basis for a new classification of carotid sinus hypersensitivity. J Intern Med. 2013;273(4):345-358.

40. Vallerand AH, Sanoski CA. Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses. 17th ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Company; 2020.

41. Karliner LS, Jacobs EA, Chen AH, Mutha S. Do professional interpreters improve clinical care for patients with limited English proficiency? A systematic review of the literature. Health Serv Res. 2007;42(2):727-754.

42. Ngo-Metzger Q, Massagli MP, Clarridge BR, et al. Linguistic and cultural barriers to care: perspectives of Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(1):44-52.

43. Merck Manual. Continuous Ambulatory Electrocardiography. Available at https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/heart-and-blood-vessel-disorders/diagnosis-of-heart-and-blood-vessel-disorders/continuous-ambulatory-electrocardiography. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

44. Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiology. An Introduction to Remote Monitoring Systems for Implantable EP Devices. Available at https://www.dicardiology.com/article/introduction-remote-monitoring-systems-implantable-ep-devices. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

45. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Holter and Event Monitors. Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/holter-and-event-monitors. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

46. Crawford MH, Bernstein SJ, Deedwania PC, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for ambulatory electrocardiography: executive summary and recommendations: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 1999;100(8):886-893.

47. MCOT Patch. Available at https://www.myheartmonitor.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2020/02/MCOT-Patch.pdf. Last accessed August 17, 2020.

48. Medtronic. Available Monitors: Remote Monitoring. Available at https://www.medtronic.com/us-en/patients/treatments-therapies/remote-monitoring/available-monitors.html. Last accessed August 17, 2020.

49. Cardiac Monitoring.com. Mobile Cardiac Telemetry. Available at http://cardiacmonitoring.com/mobile-cardiac-telemetry/. Last accessed August 17, 2020.

50. Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(7):e51-e156.

51. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What is a Pacemaker? Available at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pace. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

52. Ghanbari H, Phard WS, Al-Ameri H, et al. Meta-analysis of safety and efficacy of uninterrupted warfarin compared to heparin-based bridging therapy during implantation of cardiac rhythm devices. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110(10):1879-1913.

53. Boston Scientific. Living With a Pacemaker: Medical and Dental Procedures. Available at https://www.bostonscientific.com/en-US/patients/about-your-device/pacemakers/living-with-a-pacemaker/medical-and-dental-procedures.html. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

54. Abbott. Electromagnetic Interference. ICD and Pacemaker Interference: Dealing With EMI. Available at https://www.cardiovascular.abbott/us/en/patients/living-with-your-device/arrhythmias/emi.html. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

55. Goldschlager N, Epstein A, Friedman P, et al. Environmental and drug effects on patients with pacemakers and implantable cardioverter/defibrillators: a practical guide to patient treatment. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(5):649-655.

56. Sherman D. iPods Can Make Pacemakers Malfunction: Study. Available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-heart-ipods-idUSN1048845320070510. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

57. Thaker JP, Patel MB, Shah AJ, et al. Do media players cause interference with pacemakers? Clin Cardiol. 2009;32(11):653-657.

58. Shah AJ, Brunett JD, Thaker JP, et al. Characteristics of telemetry interference with pacemakers caused by digital media players. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33(6):712-720.

59. Thaker JP, Patel MB, Shah AJ, Liepa VV, Jongnarangsin K, Thakur RK. A media player causes clinically significant telemetry interference with implantable loop recorders. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2009;24(2):99-103.

60. Wilkoff BL, Auricchio A, Brugada J, et al. HRS/EHRA expert consensus on the monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs): description of techniques, indications, personnel, frequency, and ethical considerations. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5(6):907-925.

61. Zeitler EP, Piccini JP. Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED). Trends Cardiovas Med. 2016;26(6): 568-577.

62. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Claims Processing Manual. Chapter 35—Independent Diagnostic Testing Facility (IDTF). Available at https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/downloads/clm104c35.pdf. Last accessed August 18, 2020.

63. Ricci RP, Morichelli L, D'Onofrio A, et al. Effectiveness of remote monitoring of CIEDs in detection and treatment of clinical and device-related cardiovascular events in daily practice: the HomeGuide Registry. Europace. 2013;15(7):970-977.

64. Yarlagadda C. Pacemaker Malfunction. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/156583-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

65. Beyerbach DM, Cadman C. Pacemaker Syndrome. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/159706-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

66. Wallace CJ. Diagnosing and treating pacemaker syndrome. Crit Care Nurs. 2001;21(1):24-31, 35.

67. Jeevanantham V, Daubert JP, Zareba W. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients: an update. Cardiol J. 2009;16(3):197-209.

68. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heart Failure: Facts About Heart Failure in the United States. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/heart_failure.htm?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fdhdsp%2Fdata_statistics%2Ffact_sheets%2Ffs_heart_failure.htm. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

69. Saul L. Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2007;30(1):58-66.

70. Trupp RJ. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: optimizing the device, optimizing the patient. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2004;19(4):223-233.

71. Flanagan J, Horwood L, Bolin C, Sample R. Heart failure patients with ventricular dyssynchrony: management with a cardiac resynchronization therapy device. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2003;18(4):184-189.

72. Tang WH Wilson, Francis GS. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in New York Heart Association Class IV heart failure: it is all about selection. Circulation. 2007;115:161-162.

73. Albouaini K, Egred M, Rao A, Alahmar A, Wright DJ. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: evidence-based benefits and patient selection. Eur J Intern Med. 2008;19(3):165-172.

74. Agrawal, A. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1839506-overview. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

75. Narayan SM. Implantable defibrillators with and without resynchronization for patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Tex Heart Inst J. 2005;32(3):358-361.

76. Yarnoz MJ, Curtis AB. Sex-based differences in cardiac resynchronization therapy and implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies: effectiveness and use. Cardiol Rev. 2006;14(6):292-298.

77. Prinzen FW, Vernooy K, Auricchio A. Cardiac resynchronization therapy: state-of-the-art of current applications, guidelines, ongoing trials, and areas of controversy. Circulation. 2013;128(22):2407-2418.

78. Linde C, Abraham WT, Gold MR, St John Sutton M, Ghio S, Daubert C. REVERSE (REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic left vEntricular dysfunction) Study Group. Randomized trial of cardiac resynchronization in mildly symptomatic heart failure patients and in asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dysfunction and previous heart failure symptoms. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1834-1843.

79. Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS, et al. MADIT-CRT Trial Investigators. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1329-1338.

80. Tang ASL, Wells GA, Taljic M, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for mild-to-moderate heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2385-2395.

81. Cleveland Clinic. Biventricular Pacemaker. Available at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/16784-biventricular-pacemaker. Last accessed August 19, 2020.

82. Kydd AC, Khan FZ, Watson WD, Pugh PJ, Virdee MS, Dutka DP. Prognostic benefit of optimum left ventricular lead position in cardiac resynchronization therapy: follow-up of the TARGET study cohort. JACC Heart Fail. 2014;2(3):205-212.

83. McAtee ME, Gawlinski A. Biventricular pacing: new treatment for patients with heart failure bears important nursing implications. Am J Nurs. 2002;102(5):4-7.

84. Saba S, Marek J, Schwartzman D, et al. Echocardiography-guided left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy: results of the Speckle Tracking Assisted Resynchronization Therapy for Electrode Region trial. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6(3):427-434.

85. Khan FZ, Virdee MS, Palmer CR, et al. Targeted left ventricular lead placement to guide cardiac resynchronization therapy: the TARGET study: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(17):1509-1518.

86. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128(6):e240-e327.

87. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation. 2017;136:e137-e161.

88. Bristow MR, Saxon LA, Boehmer J, et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(21):2140-2150.

89. Young JB, Abraham WT, Smith AL, et al. Combined cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardioversion defibrillation in advanced chronic heart failure: the MIRACLE ICD Trial. JAMA. 2003;289(20):2685-2694.

90. Tang AS, Wells GA, Talajic M, et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for mild-to-moderate heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(25):2385-2395.

91. Tracy CM, Epstein AE, Darbar D, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update of the 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2012;126:1784-1800.

92. Brignole M, Auricchio A, Baron-Esquivias G, et al. 2013 ESC guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Eur Heart J. 2013;34(29):2281-2329.

93. Ahmed H, Tai JM, Khan SA, Yousuf M. QRS duration and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20(3):146-149.

94. Woodruff J, Prudente LA. Update on implantable pacemakers. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005;20(4):261-268.

95. Bleeker GB, Schalij MJ, Holman ER, Steendijk P, van der Wall EE, Bax JJ. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction and symptoms of mild heart failure secondary to ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(2):230-235.

96. Schuster P, Faerestrand S. Techniques for identification of left ventricular asynchrony for cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2005;5(3):175-185.

97. Yu CM, Chan YS, Zhang Q, et al. Benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure patients with narrow QRS complexes and coexisting systolic asynchrony by echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(11):2251-2257.

98. Quigley RL. A hybrid approach to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;17(3):273-276.

100. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Approves First Leadless Pacemaker to Treat Heart Rhythm Disorders. Available at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-leadless-pacemaker-treat-heart-rhythm-disorders. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

101. Manley D. Logan Woman Becomes First Utah Patient to get Tiny New Pacemaker. Available at https://archive.sltrib.com/article.php?id=58276080&itype=CMSID. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

102. Reardon S. Gene Therapy Creates Biological Pacemaker. Available at https://www.nature.com/news/gene-therapy-creates-biological-pacemaker-1.15569. Last accessed August 6, 2020.

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations Citations

1. Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(7):932-987. Available at https://www.hrsonline.org/clinical-resources/2018-accahahrs-guideline-evaluation-and-management-patients-bradycardia-and-cardiac-conduction. Last accessed August 26, 2020.

2. National Clinical Guideline Centre. Transient Loss of Consciousness ("Blackouts") in Over 16s. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2014. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg109. Last accessed August 26, 2020.

3. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Anesthetic Care for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Practice advisory on anesthetic care for magnetic resonance imaging: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Anesthetic Care for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Anesthesiology. 2015;122(3):495-520. Available at https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2091587. Last accessed August 26, 2020.

4. European Heart Rhythm Association, European Society of Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, et al. 2012 EHRA/HRS expert consensus statement on cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure: implant and follow-up recommendations and management. Heart Rhythm. 2012;9(9):1524-1576. Available at https://www.hrsonline.org/clinical-resources/2012-ehrahrs-expert-consensus-statement-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-heart-failure-implant-and. Last accessed August 26, 2020.



Privacy Policy
Copyright © 2020 CE Resource, P.O. Box 997571, Sacramento, CA 95899-7571
Mention of commercial products does not indicate endorsement.